7.2.4 Jens Christian Hauge
Jens Christian Hauge, lawyer and politician (Labour) was born May 15th 1915 in Aker, Oslo. He graduated from University of Oslo in 1937. During the first part of the War,1940-1941, Hauge worked for the Price Control Police unit in Oslo. From Nov. 1942 part of the leadership of the Norwegian resistance movement "Milorg". Became Milorg's leader in 1944-45 and member of the HL (Home Leadership Group) headed by barrister Paal Berg. Hauge was appointed Secretary to Prime Minister Einar Gerhardsen in 1945. Minister (Secretary) of Defense Nov. 5th 1945 - Jan. 5th 1952. From Jan. 52 secretary to the Labour Party (AP) working with information services. Barrister 1954. Minister of Justice from Jan. 22nd 1955 until he left office on Nov. 1st 1955. Attorney in Oslo. Legal advisor to the Labour Party. Board Member of several State owned companies especially within nuclear power and defence systems. Chairman of DNL/SAS (The Norwegian part of Scandinavian Airlines System). Member of Board of Directors of Kongsberg Våpenfabrikk (Kongsberg/Toshiba), Chairman of Statoil 1972-75. Due to his position during and after the War Hauge was/is one of Norways most powerful individuals for more than 4 decades.
126.96.36.199 Industrialist, nuclear power and others.
Hauge was as member of the Board of Directors of Noratom A/S directly involved in the supply of "heavy water" to Israel for their nuclear development program. Protocolls from 1958 substantiates that the Norwegian Labour Government with Prime Minister Gerhardsen knew that Israel was going to use the water for Plutonium production making it possible for Israel to produce nuclear weapons. Noratom was also going to support Israel with reactor parts and technology.
Plans for a future Norwegian Defense Technology Research Institute (FFI) was initiated in 1944 and put into action in 1945/46 during Hauge's time as Minister of Defense. Institute for Atomic Energi (IFA) was established in 1948 supported by powerful people like Jens Chr. Hauge, Fredrick Møller, Gunnar Randers and Finn Lied. Møller, Randers and Lied were Directors of FFI. On June 9th 1949 Hauge managed to get the Parliaments approval of fundings for building a nuclear reactor at FFI and a program for rocket developmemt at Raufoss Ammunisjonsfabrikk (RA). Hauge and his nuclear lobbyists had great industrial power. In 1957/8 another reactor was constructed in Halden. Bjarne Hurlen was engaged by Hauge as Director for RA and Kongsberg Våpenfabrikk (KV). Noratom A/S was founded in 1957 with participation from RA, KV, Norsk Hydro and others. The purpose of Noratom was to commercialize nuclear technology. In 1959, 19 shipowners grouped together establising Rederiatom with the purpose of utilizing nuclear power in ship propulsion. One of them were Mosvolds Rederi. Hauge acted as board member and "legal advisor " for these and other state owned companies for years.
Hauge was a key player for the Labour Party, the Norwegian Trade Union and their companies including Landsbanken and the Labour press (A-pressen). Hauge assisted in 1986 the editor of the A-press Mr. Einar Olsen who was arrested accused for embezzlement. Hauge recommended barrister Anneæus Schjødt to Olsen. who was found not guilty. Schjødt was in 1973 the main counseler for the defence of the Israeli agents arrested in the Lillehammer-murder. As member of Board of Directors and Chairman of SAS Hauge protected SAS - monopoly in Scandinavia. He represented the State as chairman of DNL, the Norwegian part owner of SAS, for 21 years from 1962 to 1983 when he was replaced by Director Tor Moursund of Kreditkassen (Norwegian Bank taken over by the state in early 90s). Shipowner Fred Olsen, at that time a major stockholder of the Aker Group, was also boardmember of DNL. Hauge made close ties with Akers Managing Director Martin Siem who took part in restructuring SAS in the early sixties. Aker constructed 24 fruit carriers for Israeli owners during the 60s and early 70s. Hauges close liaisson from the War, mr Gunnar Sønsteby (Kjakan) was employed heading up Akers oil activities in Stavanger and Svalbard from mid 60s. Siem left Aker for another job with Fred Olsen after the 1969 New Year cannon-boat raid from Dunkirk in France to Haifa in Israel. The Company Starboat SA which oficially "bought" the boats from France was registrated in Panama and controlled by Martin Siem. The boats were said to be used in oil operations. Gunnar Sønsteby left Aker as well handing over his position as Director of Aker's Oil Division to Mr. Thomas Egeberg at the Norsco base in Stavanger. Mr. Egeberg was an acquintant to Johan Brun who initiated Stavanger Drilling and the ordering of the two rigs "Alexander L. Kielland" and "Henrik Ibsen".
In 1977 Hauge negotiated for Norway an agreement to purchase 40% of Volvo in Swerden. The agreement which included industrial and energy (oil) cooperation between Volvo and the Norwegian State was turned down by Volvo's stockholders. In 1953 Hauge had negotiated an agreement with Volvo for car parts manufacturing at the two state owned companies Kongsberg Våpenfabrik (KV) and Raufoss Ammunisjonsfabrikk (RA). He was familiar with Pehr Gyllenhammers superiors from before. The Wist family were Volvo's agents in Trondheim. In the 80's Bjarne Wist was appointed Director of Den norske Creditbank in Trondheim which in 1987 stopped my line of credit. DnC had also a branch in Houston, Texas. Later DnC became DnB and is to day controlled by the Norwegian state. Hauge used the same tactics when he tried to force Mr. Hatlebakk and his company Moxy to cooperate with Volvo. By using his influence Hauge stopped Hatlebakks line of credit forcing Hatlebakk putting Moxy into an akward position. Hatlebak denied ,however, to collaborate with Volvo. Hauge was also on the board of Tandberg Radiofabrikk which was a very prosperous privat owned enterprise in the 70s headed up by the pioneer Vebjørn Tandberg. Bankruptcy proceedings showned several years later thet the company had not been insolvent.
Hauge was running his legal office as part of the Labour Party til 1971 when he moved his office to KV and RA's Oslo office in Indexhuset at Drammensveien in Oslo. The Norwegian Export Council and Export School had also their offices in Indexhuset. Hauge was the first Chairman of Statoil which Oslo office was adjacent to Hauges. Hauge was the legal advisor to Minister of Industry Mr. Finn Lied (Hauges collaborator from FFI) in establishing Statoil. On Oct. 20th 1990 the Norwegian newspaper Dagbladet divulged that at least 32 mobil KV-gassturbines were producing electricity for Libyas russian SS 20-rocketbases and radarstatios on the Egyptian boarder. At least two stationary KV-gassturbines was installed as backup for a chemical gasplant in Rabita, Libya. Eight mobile KV-gassturbines supplied electricity to a training camp in Lybia runned by the terrorist Abu Nidal. Two KV manufactured fresh water plants was installed 500 meters from Moammar Khadaffis russian supplied nuclear research institute outside Tripoli. Orders were placed in 1972-73 with deliveries in 1977-78. KV's relationship with Lybia continued to the mid 80s. Armand Hammer of Occidental Oil had also close industrial contacts with Libya as well as Soviet. In cooperation with Toshiba, KV exported illegal computer technology to Soviet for manufacturing of submarine propellers. ABB in Norway had together with Brown & Root contracts in Libya in the 90s.
188.8.131.52 Media influence
Hauge was legal advisor for Arbeiderbladet until 1989. He participated in board meetings which consisted of Labours most prominent politicians. Arbeiderbladet is owned directly by the Labour Party. Mot Dag member Torolf Elster was in charge of NRK, Norwegian Broadcasting. His successors Bjartmar Gjerde and Einar Førde are both trusted members of the Labour Party. The largest "independent" press in Norway Aftenposten, VG, are owned by the Schibsted Group. They are also heavily engaged in Norway TV2. NRK and TV2 are the two largest TV-stations in Norway. Schibsted's owner Tinius Nagell Erichsen is a friend of Hauge. He was a close relative to Finn Nagell from the resistance movement during the War and military intelligence service. Newsreporter Brynjulfsen, who was in charge when the explosion theory was presented to Aftenposten in Oct. 1983 had 14 years earlier been in Haifa when the cannon-boats arrived from France. Aftenposten, VG and TV2 have not fulfilled their obligations as an independent press. Schibsted is also a major stockholder in other newspapers in Norway as f.i. Adresseavisen in Trondheim. Hauge moved office to Drammensveien 10, Oslo. Norwegian Oil Revue with editor Hans Henrik Ramm, had ofices in the same building. Ramm was part of Kåre Willoch's Conservative Cabinet in the 80's. Ramm together with Army Major Johan Setsaas discovered that Norwegian Oil Revue's offices were bugged, under surveillance.
It's likely that Erling Falk and Mot Dag's "inner circle" knew what was comming on April 9th 1940. In spite of days of warning the Labour Party Cabinet did not mobilize the Norwegian Armed Forces. Not even after German ships were visible on the water properly mobilization orders were issued. Thanks to Lieutenant Erikson at Oscarsborg in the Oslo fjord who ordered the sinking of the German Admiral ship Blücher and Carl Hambro, the conservative President of the Parliament, King Haakon and the Cabinet managed to flee Oslo and when Norway had to surrender few months later, they were transported to London by the British Navy.
Initially the Germans trid to convince the Norwegians they were comming as friends. In summer 1940 the Norwegian Administrative Council (Administrasjonsrådet) consisting of powerfull people from various parts of the society and based in Oslo, wrote to King Haakon in London asking him to abdicate which he denied. The Norwegian resistance during the first year of occupation was locally by individual groups. In the summer of 1941 Tor Skjønnsberg called for a meting "Grimelundsmøtet" which was the start of a more organized resistance. Skjønnsberg was in reality the leader of the resistance movement in Norway until he had to flee the country in november 1944. Although the Labour Cabinet in London recognized barrister Paal Berg as the official leader in summer 1943 Skjønnsberg was the real leader.After Skjønnsberg fled Jens Chritian Hauge gained more influence and became the main player in the resistance movement for the last part of the War. (In November 1944 it was evident that the Germans was going to loose the War and that piece was only months ahead.)
The Mot Dag member Viggo Hansteen head of the Trade Unions legal office and shop steward Rolf Wickstrøm were the two first victims executed by the Germans on September 9th 1941. This was months after Hitler initited operation "Barbarossa" attacking Stalin. The communist Viggo Hansteen was a mayor connection between the Trade Union and other organizations in building up the resistance movement. The Germans regarded the Trade Unions as the strongest and best organized unit able to make resistance. Although a lot of non-leftist norwegians took active part in the resistance movement during the years 1941-45, the communists remained the most agressive.
It is likely that the Germans from early occupation worked on infiltrating any resistance. Through their collaboration with Stalin in 1940 they most likely had access to Erling Falk and his closest collaborator(s) informing about movements in the norwegian society.
In April 1940 Jens Christian Hauge worked at The University in Oslo and at the Price Control Police Unit. He lectured in law at the University. He was arrested by the Germans accused for spreading anti-nazi propaganda and served a couple of months in yail. Released from prison he volonteered together with his friend Helge Sivertsen to join a local resistance group headed up by Knut Møyen, and Hauge became soon Møyens "shadow" and second in command. Møyen recruited people from the Norwegian Students Athletic Assosciation were both Sivertsen and Hauge were active before the War. Møyens group was exposed and Møyen had to flee to Sweden whereafter Hauge took over his place in the leadership bringing Hauge closer to Tor Skjønsberg.
Gunnar Sønsteby born 1918, also called "Kjakan" or no 24 is one of the most decorated freedomsfighters from the War. He was educated in Britain and member of "Kompani Linge". He was leder of the socalled "Oslo-group". Sønsteby had through Knut Møyen contact with Milorg. In his book "Report from no 24" published in 1960 he says that Milorg was completely torn apart by the Germans in October 1941. Several members were arrested and several had to flee to Sweden. Møyen had a hard time putting it all together and establish contact with other groups around the country. One of his collaborators was Erling Lorentzen who after the War married one of the late King Olav V's daughters. Møyen informed Sønsteby that he had picked a successor in case something happened. His name was Jens Christian Hauge. In summer 1942 Møyen and Lorentzen had to escape to Sweden.
Hauge himself has after the War disclosed that he had contacts within the German forces during Wartime. Whatever information the Germans had about Hauge it should have been on file in the German headquarters in Norway. Kai Holst was after the War instructed to pick up the German files and bring them to Stockholm. Kai Holst was shot dead in Stockholm.
Compared to Denmark the German deportion of Jews from Norway went smoothly. The Norwegian Police assisted the Germans in gathering of the Jews. The Norwegian resistance movement was lean on helping Jews to flee to Sweden. Hauge and Milorg owed the Jews after the War.
After the "D-day", the allied invasion of Europe it became obvious that War was comming to an end. Preparation for piece started. The initial thoughts among the Norwegians in London were to have parliament election as soon as possible after the War. Hauge proposed that an intermediate Cabinet and Administration were appointed in order to run the country until proper organized elections could take place later on. He argued so well for his proposal that it was accepted by the Cabinet in London. Hauge and his men started picking out names on people to be put into position as Police chiefs, Mayors, Department Byraucrats etc. in order to be ready to take over the running of the country. A lot of these people were picked from within Milorg. When piece came the secret groups of Milorg would step forward and their leaders recognized. Lot of changes took place in the leadership of the resistance movement in late 44 and 45. Some had to flee to Sweden, others were arrested and remained in prisson until the War ended, other were replaced. F.i. the leader of LARK in Trondheim Gjems Onstad were replaced. When piece came the people being recognized as Milorg leaders were not always the peolpe which had contributed the most. When peece came the by Hauge and his collaborators listed persons took control over the society. Paal Berg failed in making a coalition government and Mot Dag member Einar Gerhardsen became Prime Minister with Hauge as secretary. The Labour Party won the November election and Mot Dag got increased influence. As I see it Hauge and Mot Dag made in 1944/45 a silent coup in Norway.
184.108.40.206 The secret war.
During the latter part of the War Hauge visisted Moscow at least two times. The first time without clearance from the Norwegian Cabinet in London. What were matters of discussion with the Russian has not been fully disclosed, however, freedom of North Norway and Soviet/Norwegian relations after the War are likely topics.
As Minister of Defence after the War, Hauge was responsible for reorganizing and build up of the Norwegian Army and Intelligence Service. Mot Dag members Vilhelm Hansteen and Vilhelm Evang became central actors in these fields.
During 1946 and 1947 privat independent groups under initiative from "Lien/Platou" were established consisting of non-soscialist, anti-communist individuals, mainly from upper class of the Norwegian society, directors, bankers, shipowners, lawyers, judges, merchants, professors...... Established people in the society, members of Rotary, Round Table, Freemason Lodges...... Reasons were fear for communist takeover combined with bad experience from the German invasion 9.april 1940. This should never happen again. The organization or "clandestine resistance network - Stay behind nets" was illegal according to the law. The groups were organized much like Milorg with intelligence services and operational units. Several members of Milorg became involved. When Evang and Hauge got news about this "secret" organization they had two options, to forbid the organization as illegal or take control. To forbid the organization included the risk of the organization to continue working on its own without their control. Hauge and Evang decided to take control trethening the leaders with legal prosecution if they denied to follow their guidelines. In taking control they recruited persons into the organization from outside the previous groups. As such Evang and Hauge had the best knowledge about the organization and people in Norway suspected for and under surveillance for pro-communist activity. Their is always a possibility of misusing such organizations by planting desinformation.
In the late 50s the Norwegian Intelligence Police is warned by CIA about a possible female spy (secretary) with the Norwegian Embassy in Moscow. The person put under surveillance and arrested by the Norwegians is Ingeborg Lygren. Lygren was recruited by CIA before starting her work at the Norwegian Embassy in Moscow in 1956. She had taken over as secretary after Gunnvor Haltung Haavik who had worked at the Norwegian Enbassy in Moscow since 1947. 30 years later, on January 27 1977 Haltung Haavik was arrested for Soviet espionage within the Norwegian Foreign Department in Oslo. The main question is why Lygren and not Haavik was put under surveillance in the late 50's when the first warnings about a secretary spy at the Norwegian Embassy in Moscow came from CIA. Who in Norway had the interest and power to shelter Haavik for 20 more years ? An even bigger spy than Haavik ??
In 1948 Asbjørn Sunde alias "Osvald" started establishing communist stay behind groups in Norway. Osvald was the leader of a communist resistance group 1941-44. He had after the War close contact with the Soviet Embassy in Oslo. Osvald was in 1954 convicted to 8 years in prison for espionage. The object of Osvald's communist stay behind groups were to perform sabotage operations in Norway in case of war under orders from Moscow. Targets were US military installations, storage of weapon and ammunition. The groups consisted not only by NKP (Norwegian Communist Party) members, but also people outside NKP. Osvald's operation is said to be a continuation of the "Wollweber -organization" in Norway which was in operation before the War. . Ernst Wollweber was a member of the German Communist Party, however, he served Soviet in building up sabotage groups all over Europe targeting the shipping industry. After the War Wollweber participated in reconstruction of East Germay (DDR) until he was removed by Ulbricht in 1957. Osvald's operation was NKGB controlled by KGB. Their were several rumours about sabotage against Norwegian ships and some ship accidents have been investigated by the surveillance police but nothing has been proved to public knowledge.
How far Osvald's plans were put into operation is hard to say. Osvald never committed anything and was convicted based on circumstancial evidence. During the War the "Osvald" and "Kompani Linge" organization cooperated to a certain extent. "Linges" main contact with "Osvald" was Gunnar "Kjakan" Sønsteby.
By infiltrating the "Lien/Platou" anti-communist stay behind "Osvald" would retain information about suspected communist activity making it possible for "Osvald" to shelter, recruit and build up its own organization in secret, both separately and within stay behind. When Hauge and Evang took control over the "Lien/Platou" clandestine network they had insisted on recruiting own personnel to the organization. (In London, the KGB-agents Kim Philby &Co had moved themselves all the way to the top of Secret Service, MI6). Infiltrating stay behind made it also possible for "Osvald" to keep an eye on CIA and MI6 activities in Norway as well as planting of desinformation.
The War created strong ties between people inspite of political differences. As f.i. between members of the socalled "Oslo-group", with Sønsteby, Max Manus, Lorentzen and others. Gram, Stenersen and Talaksen were killed during the War. Sønsteby's contacts were numerous. When Crown Prince Olav returned to Oslo, Hauge relied on Sønsteby and the "Oslo-group" for security. In late 1945 Sønsteby wanted to leave Norway and was offered a job by a friend of his Frithjof Høyer, at the Norwegian Purchasing Office in New York. During his stay in USA, Sønsteby fulfilled "Advanced management Program" at Harvard Business School. He was employed by Esso in New York. Worked for them in Panama, Nicaragua and Costa Rica. In New York he traded fuel to the growing airline industries and secured a contract for Esso with SAS for world wide deliveries. Sønsteby returned to Norway in 1950.
At Milorgs 10th year celebration on May 7th 1955 in Oslo 500 members of the resistance movement were marching bfore the King. In 1945 they had been 15. 000 of total 40.000 organized all around the country. In his speech on the banquet the same night Hauge stated: "Moscow radio has announced that it was only communists fighting the German occupants in Norway. Maybe this means that Moscow wishes to make the Norwegian resistance movement to honorable communists. If so we will have to thank them for the decorations." This was in a period of time when many thought Soviet was going to win the "cold war".
With his active way of life and contacts within Norway, Britain and New York, Sønsteby most likely became a key player for Hauge in Stay Behind and his actions for controlling the industrial develoment of Norway. "The one who controls the money makes the rules". When oil activities started, Sønsteby in mid 60's became in charge of the Aker Groups oil activities under Martin Siem, Norsco Base in Stavanger and Aker Drilling with activities on Svalbard.
The clandestine operations costed money and financing had to be secured outside government public spending. No doubt corners were cut. To what extent is not divulged. Kick backs, bribary, black mail, moonshining, drug traffic.......organized crime, mafia connections, you name it..... nothing is imposible in that industry. Few people if any knows the full impact. The operation is run on the principle "need to know". Noone is told more than needed to fulfill their role, to do their job. Thats why such organizations easily can be misleaded and misused.
The main question to remain answering is if this type of operation is legal or illegal ? The Norwegian Constitution clause 25 states: "Kongen har høieste Befaling over Rigets Land - og Sømagt. Den maa ikke forøges eller formindskes, uden Storthingets Samtykke. Den maa ikke overlades i fremmede Magters Tjeneste, og ingen fremmede Magters Krigsfolk, undtagen Hjælpetropper imod fiendtligt Overfald, maa inddrages i Riget uden Storthingets Samtykke." (i.e: The King is in top command of the Norwegian Armed Forces. The Armed Forces must not be subject to changes without Parliament acceptance..........)
On August 29th 1983 I was given the opportunity to meet King Olav V in his office at the Royal Castle in Oslo. Matter for the visit was the ongoing uprighting attempt of the capsized Alexander L. Kielland rig. After years of planning and preparations the operation might still be a failure if not adequate decisions were made. Three years later, on April 23rd 1987 I met with King Olav V again. This time in audience at the Royal Castle. Matter was informing the King about the technical evedence about the sabotage against Kielland. After seeing the King I was strengthened in my believe that truth had to come forward. I was further convinced that the King was not informed about what had taken place on March 27th 1980 when "Kielland" capsized. As Officer in the Reserves I was astonished that the King as Head of the Norwegian Armed Forces was not informed.
"Kielland" was not longer a case concerning relatives and survivors, it was a matter of constitution concerning the entire Norwegian population.
Added Sept. 10th 1997:
The sister of Gunnar "Kjakan" Sønsteby is married to former Chief of the Norwegian Military Service (forsvarssjef) and Head of the Military Intelligence Service (E-tjenesten) and later Head of the Military Construction Service (Forsvarets Bygningstjeneste), General Svein Hauge.
Added Nov. 17th 1998:
7.2.5 Phonecall from Gunnar Sønsteby 17.11.98